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  •  Quotation Marks for Titles
    • Titles of books, journals, and magazines are in italics
    • Titles of articles and webpages are in “quotation marks”
    • Check A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations or the official Turabian website for all unique forms of media


  • Quoting a Source
    • In-Text Quote
      • 2 lines of text or less
      • Exact match to the source
      • Use quotation marks:
        • Newbigin recounts, “As I talked with those to be confirmed, I found that more than half of them had only been baptized in the past few weeks.”
      • A quotation can be part of your sentence like these:
        • Newbigin became bishop of Madras, “a very different kind of job” overseeing a geographically larger diocese.
        • This is what he meant when he called for “a radical reordering of the pattern of the Church and ministry as the only way out” of the current pitfalls.
      • You can interrupt a sentence quotation like this:
        • “I have seen enough,” he reports, “to be convinced that Roland Allen’s central thesis is true.”
      • If your quotation already includes “”, you must change those to ‘’ like this:
        • No one could have “programmed” all this.  à  Newbigin argues, “No one could have ‘programmed’ all this.”
    • Block Quote
      • 3 lines of text or more
      • Exact match to the source
      • Do not use quotation marks
      • Do not use quotation marks for poetry. Align them as close to the original as possible.
      • Single-spaced, with a blank line above and below the quote
      • Use size 10 font (optional)
      • Indent on left; can also indent on right if you want
        • In regard to his decision to leave the church, he admitted,


It has indeed been urged upon me that I might retain my position and wait . . . I believe that so long as I acted wisely and discreetly, I should enjoy again, as I have enjoyed in the past, the sympathy and support of every communicant in this church.  But that would not be right.


    • Combining In-Text and Block Quotation
      • Allen held that such activities “embolden men to go on living in sin” and damage witness by bringing


the services of the Church into disrepute and [making] them an open scorn.  There is a horrible danger in using holy services in the case of people who deny by word or deed all that is implied in them.  People think and speak as if the services were ‘mere forms.’  God is not mocked.


    • Ellipses
      • Replace cut text to show that you cut out irrelevant text from the source quote
      • If you cut off the beginning of a sentence (optional):
        • He saw converts who “. . . cannot supply what they think to be needful, and so they learn to accept the position of passive recipients.”
      • If you cut off the end of a sentence (optional):
        • Newbigin noted, “He is free to break off unbelieving

branches . . .”

      • If you cut out of the middle of a sentence or middle of a paragraph (mandatory):
        • He records, “There are groups which have had no services for five, ten, or even twenty years. . . . the system breaks down most seriously in practice . . . The people learn also another lesson.”
        • Allen holds that “the sacraments are the rites of the organized society; and the faithful ought to live in that society. . . . the question is whether they ought not live in a society in which the sacraments are always at hand. . . . if they saw that there was no need to wait for a paid cleric, they would get a new conception of the church and of the ordinances of Christ.”
      • ... is a slowing down or dropping off of the end of a sentence, but . . . indicates that you cut text. Don’t confuse these.
        • “I feel sleepy...”  à  She wrote, “I feel sleepy...”   (... = end of sentence, a trailing off of sound)
        • “I feel sleepy, groggy, bored, and tired.”  à  She wrote, “I feel sleepy . . . and tired.”  (… = “, groggy, bored”)
        • “I feel sleepy.  I also feel groggy and tired.”  à  She wrote, “I feel sleepy. . . . and tired.” (. . . . = “. I also feel groggy”)
        • “I feel sleepy and groggy.  I feel bored and tired.”  à  She wrote, “I feel sleepy. . . . I feel bored and tired.” (. . . . = “and groggy.“)


    • Brackets
      • To match the capitalization or lowercase of the quoted text to your entire sentence:
        • It is He who creates leaders, it is He who enlightens, it is He who uplifts, it is He who teaches men to “live,” whatever the conditions in which they live.  à  Allen explains, “[I]t is He who teaches men to ‘live,’ whatever the conditions in which they live.”
      • To add a word or phrase to clarify the quote:
        • Allen refers to Paul’s “conception of Christ and of the Holy Spirit, of faith in Christ and of the grace of Christ, and of the power of the Holy Spirit, [which] forbids any reliance upon Mosaic or philosophic teaching…”
      • To change from a singular in the original sentence to a plural in your sentence:
        • He saw these individuals “as the leader[s] whom God has already chosen and given to the new congregation.”







      • To change from exclusive language to inclusive language:
        • And I shall be surprised if he does not find before long that many of his accustomed ideas are being questioned by a voice more searching than the word of man.  à  He wrote, “[M]any of [a reader’s] accustomed ideas are being questioned by a voice more searching than the word of [humans].”
      • To show incorrect grammar or spelling was in the original sentence. It is not your fault if you add [sic]:
        • “Man. [sic] who is in a state of rebellion against God, cannot walk into the house of God and sit down to meat as though he were walking into the house of a friend.”
      • To add your own emphasis that was not in the original sentence. Indicate the emphasis by italics:
        • Hebrews 4:12 describes, “Indeed, the word of God is living and active [emphasis mine], sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing until it divides soul from spirit, joints from marrow; it is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.  And before him no creature is hidden, but all are naked and laid bare to the eyes of the one to whom we must render an account.”
    • Quoting Scripture
      • Translation
        • If you only use one translation, use NRSV (New Revised Standard Version) because it is the most accepted English translation by PTS professors. It is gender-inclusive. You can state the translation in a footnote:
          • All translations are from the New Revised Standard Version, unless otherwise indicated.
        • If you only use translation/s other than NRSV, explain which other translation you are using and indicate why NRSV was not sufficient.
        • If you use multiple translations in one paper, explain which translation you use when:
          • (Jn 3:16 NRSV)
          • (Jn 3:16 NASB)
          • The NASB, ASB, and NIV all use the word “righteousness” in 5:21, whereas the NRSV uses “justification,” with “righteousness” in the marginal notes as an alternate translation.
          • The largest variance is “like the transgression of Adam” (NRSV), “the likeness of the offense of Adam” (NASB, ASB), and “by breaking a command, as did Adam” (NIV).
        • Use standard citation style if you use an original translation written by a specific author in his/her commentary, book, journal article, etc.
        • When you give your own original translation, explain that it is yours.
          • (translation mine)
          • You can write this in a footnote if you like: All translations are my own unless otherwise indicated.
      • Citing Verses
        • Use the official abbreviations of the book titles within citations. You can use them within the regular text of your paper as well, but you can spell out the entire book title within your regular text as you like.
          • Genesis = Gen
          • John  = Jn
        • State the book, chapter and verse. After you have stated the book and chapter once, you can refer to other verses in the same chapter without retyping out the book and chapter. After you switch to a different book, and want to return to the first book, you need to again provide the book, chapter, and verse.
          • This passage is topically distinct from Rom 5:1-11 in which Paul discusses boasting and suffering (1-5, 11) and God’s love for his ungodly enemies (6-10). Gen 2:4-3:24 appears to be a source for Adam as type of Christ. Bible scholars disagree on the dating and circumstances of Rom and it is unclear whether Paul intends to answer recipients’ specific issues or is writing general instruction, since it is implied that he has not yet visited Rome (1:13). At least some of the Christians in Rome met in house churches (16:5), and Prisca and Jewish Aquilla were in Rome at the time (16:3, Acts 18:2).
        • In-Text examples:
          • Lk 14:15-24 shows that the resurrection of the righteous as the great dinner was intended for many.
          • The “you” of 14:24 is plural.
          • Mt 22:1-14 offers a similar tale.
        • Citation examples:
          • Then people, probably foreigners, will come from east and west, from north and south, and will eat in the kingdom of God (Lk 13:28-29).
          • These men are concerned with keeping strict rules (14:3-7).
        • Combining In-Text with Citation:
          • This unit is closely tied to the prior unit (14:12-14), as it is the command to which the man is responding with his 14:15 claim.
    • Quoting Other Scriptures and Classical Works
      • The scriptures of other religions are cited in the same manner.
      • Greek and Latin classical works are cited in a similar manner.
      • Some medieval works are cited in the same manner as Greek and Latin classical works.

Lesslie Newbigin, Mission in Christ's Way: Bible Studies, WCC mission series no. 8 (Geneva: WCC Publications, 1987), 19-20.

Lesslie Newbigin, Unfinished Agenda: An Updated Autobiography (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009), 200.

Ibid., 202.

Ibid., 156.

Lesslie Newbigin, The Open Secret: An Introduction to the Theory of Mission, Rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, 1995), 131.

Newbigin, Mission in Christ's Way, 19-20.

Roland Allen, “To the Parishoners of Chalfont St. Peter,” in The Ministry of the Spirit: Selected Writings of Roland Allen (London: World Dominion Press, 1960), 195.

Ibid., 194.

Roland Allen, The Spontaneous Expansion of the Church and the Causes Which Hinder It, 1st ed. (Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1962), 32-33; Roland Allen, Missionary Methods, St. Paul's or Ours?, 2nd ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1959), 75, 108, 122; Roland Allen, “Mission Activities Considered in Relation to the Manifestation of the Spirit,” in The Ministry of the Spirit: Selected Writings of Roland Allen (London: World Dominion Press, 1960), 94, 101.

Lesslie Newbigin, The Household of God: Lectures on the Nature of the Church (London: SCM Press, 2008), 133.

Roland Allen, “The Case for Voluntary Clergy,” in The Ministry of the Spirit: Selected Writings of Roland Allen (London: World Dominion Press, 1960), 167-168.

Ibid., 168.

Roland Allen, The Ministry of the Spirit: Selected Writings of Roland Allen (London: World Dominion Press, 1960), 97

Allen, Missionary Methods, St. Paul's or Ours?, 35

Newbigin, Unfinished Agenda, 138.

Lesslie Newbigin, “Forward,” in The Spontaneous Expansion of the Church and the Causes Which Hinder It, 1st ed. (Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1962), iii-iv.

Lesslie Newbigin, Sin and Salvation (Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009), 85.

Living Together

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